Every complex app is a foreign language with arbitrary grammar and vocabulary

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For example, finding what you need inside Photoshop, Illustrator, Game Engines, Word or Excel or any IDE is a lost battle. Menus and feature taxonomies are mostly arbitrary and do not map to the mental model of the user.

We have to use a search engine every time we want to do something we haven’t memorized. Discovering features serendipitously is the rare exception.

There’s entire book genres just for explaining how to get anything done inside these apps.

Our tasks are becoming increasingly complex: we have to navigate and manipulate a much more complex space of objects and data which are distributed through multiple apps and environments

We reached the limits of the flat desktop graphical user interface (GUI) decades ago.

Navigating functionality inside apps and discovering features is a ridiculously large and growing problem, perhaps the biggest in using software.

Of course there’s the absolutely unhelpful in-app literal keyword search which is a bandaid applied to a tumor.

Perhaps clicking and dragging will soon be considered artifacts from a time where computers where new and we had to use friendly metaphors that map intuitively to the non-digital world.

GUIs are just one way to get at a context. In general, context should be inferred as much as possible from your history or environment.